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The present study was conducted to estimate economic efficiency of rice production in Bangladesh, focusing on the Jhenaidah district based on primary data collected from 112 rice producing farms using multistage random sampling technique. The translog stochastic cost frontier model used to estimate economic efficiency of rice production. The mean economic efficiency was 58.04% for Aus, 65.04% for Aman and 59.34% for Boro indicating that there is a large scope of increasing economic efficiency. The result also found that labor cost, irrigation cost, fertilizer cost and output have significant contribution on economic efficiency of rice production. This study suggest that efficiency level can be increased by increasing education, training and extension service, credit facilities, inventing high yielding varieties of seed and giving proper marketing facilities to the farmers.